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  • The AVENO's May Day holiday notice

    The AVENO's May Day holiday notice

    02 May, 2023

    Dear AVENO Customers, Hello! We would like to inform you about our upcoming May Day holiday. In honor of this statutory holiday, our offices will be closed from April 30, 2023 to May 3, 2023 to in observance of this national holiday. We will resume normal operations on May 4, 2023. During this period, we will be on duty, and we apologize if we cannot reply to you in time for any inconvenience this may cause. We kindly ask you to plan your orders and inquiries in advance accordingly to ensure there is no disruption to your business operations. Thank you for your understanding, and we wish you and your family a pleasant May Day holiday. Best regards, AVENO TECHNOLOGY CO., LIMITED Anything inquiry please contact us as below: AVENO technology co., ltd. Email: sales@avenotester.com AVENO Instruments, located in Quanzhou city of China, founded in Hongkong when 1998, main products including: Textile Testing Equipment, Footwear Testing Equipment, Children Products Testing Equiment.

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  • What is the color fastness to perspiration

    What is the color fastness to perspiration

    30 Oct, 2022

    The autumn wind is coming, and summer is slipping away. Summer is a season easy to sweat. After a good sweat, it can make us feel happy, but at the same time, many people are worried. After sweating, clothes are easy to fade. In fact, this is likely to be caused by the unqualified color fastness of your clothes to perspiration. Colour fastness to perspiration There are millions of effective sweat glands on human skin, and the forehead, armpits, chest, back and palms sweat more; therefore, clothes often worn in summer, such as shirts, T-shirts and other clothes, will fade seriously in these parts. As we all know, the composition of human sweat is complex, the main component of which is salt, which varies from person to person. Sweat is acidic and alkaline. The short-term contact of textiles with sweat may have little effect on its color fastness, but long-term contact with the skin and sweat will have a greater impact on some dyes. Clothing with unqualified dye fastness is easy to transfer dyes from textiles to human skin through sweat, etc. The molecules of dyes and heavy metal ions may be absorbed by the human body through the skin and endanger health. The color fastness to perspiration reflects the discoloration of the textile itself and the staining of the lining fabric under the combined action of pressure and temperature in different test solutions containing histidine. How to improve the color fastness to perspiration Improve the color fastness of the fabric to perspiration: 1. The most important way is to choose dyes reasonably, especially dyes with high fixation rate and good stability should be used. 2. Reasonably formulate and control the dyeing process, strengthen the fixing conditions, and form a covalent bond with high stability, so that the dye can be fully fixed. For example, when dyeing dyes with poor reactivity, a catalyst can be used, or an appropriate fixing agent can be used, or the color can be fixed at a relatively high temperature. AVENO Machine Recommend: Fabric Perspiration Tester AC08 Contact Us Now! Sales Dept Tel: +86 15280858852 Email: sales@avenotester.com Skype: sales@avenotester.com Web: www.avenotester.com

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  • How to test the mutual color fastness of textile splicing

    How to test the mutual color fastness of textile splicing

    17 Aug, 2022

    Clothes stained during washing or soaking? I believe that everyone is familiar with this situation, and many people should have encountered such embarrassing things. This is due to the mixed washing of dark and light-colored clothes, the fading of dark-colored clothes and dyeing on light-colored clothes, resulting in staining of light-colored clothes, or the mutual staining of dark and light colors on a piece of clothing after washing. In response to this phenomenon, there is a professional name in textiles: splicing and mutual dyeing. Test methods for testing the interdyeing of textiles by splicing, namely the washing method and the soaking method. The washing method The sample is placed in the specified washing solution, mechanically stirred according to the specified bath ratio, time and temperature, then washed and dried, and the staining of the light-colored sample is evaluated with a staining gray card or an instrument. The soaking method The sample is placed in the specified washing solution, and after treatment, it is placed between two flat plates with a specified pressure in the test device. After cleaning and drying, the staining of the light-colored sample is evaluated with Gray scale for color staining or an instrument. Sample preparation: 1. The sample is a ready-made garment. Cut a piece of dark and light-colored fabrics, 4×10cm, and sew them along the short side to form a combined sample. 2. Weigh the sample to the nearest 0.01g. 3. Add detergent according to the sample weight. The sampling and soap solution configuration of the two methods are the same, the only difference is the test equipment and operating procedures. Test Instruments The washing method: Wash Colour Fastness Tester The soaking method: Precision Drying Oven Operating procedure The washing method 1. Put the sample and test solution into the container 2. Put the container into the machine, set the temperature to 40 degrees, and test it for 30 minutes. 3. Take out the sample and rinse it with running water until it is clean. The soaking method 1. Put the sample and test solution into the container, press and move from time to time to completely soak the sample, take out the sample and place it on the Perspiration Tester, and apply a pressure of 5000g. 2. Put the loaded sample into the Precision Drying Oven, the temperature is 37 degrees, for 4 hours, take out the combined sample, and rinse it with running water until it is clean. The test temperature of the washing method is 3°C higher than that of the soaking method. In terms of test time, the washing method requires 30 minutes and the soaking method is 4H. After the test is completed, after rinsing the test, it is necessary to absorb excess water with filter paper and hang it to dry. The samples tested by the two methods are evaluated by Gray scale for color staining. From the test results, the stain level of the soaking method is much more serious than that of the washing method. Color Fastness Test Machines abo...

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  • Knowledge Sharing: Measures to Reduce Pilling

    Knowledge Sharing: Measures to Reduce Pilling

    31 Jul, 2022

    In the process of wearing and using fabrics, different degrees of pilling will occur. So how can we reduce the pilling of our fabrics? Spinning process During the spinning process, the fibers in the twisting triangle area undergo repeated internal and external transfer due to uneven force, causing the head end, tail end or middle part of most fibers to protrude from the yarn body, forming hairiness. In order to reduce the hairiness, the textile mill rationally mixes cotton, optimizes the process, adopts advanced textile technology according to its own conditions, and tries to control the occurrence of hairiness within the scope of its ability. Weaving process The organizational structure of knitted fabrics has a great influence on pilling, and the tight organization is less prone to pilling than the loose organization. Dyeing and finishing process Singeing: Singeing is a great way to reduce hairiness and reduce pilling. Adjustment of technical parameters: After the dyeing and finishing technology is determined, parameters such as bath ratio time can be adjusted appropriately, for example, the bath ratio can be appropriately increased or the technical curve can be improved to shorten the time. Use of auxiliaries: Anti-pilling agents can be added during the bleaching process. The softener is added during the dyeing process to reduce the mixed friction between the yarns and between the fabric and the dyeing machine, and at the same time, it can control the leakage of the fibers from the end of the yarn, thereby reducing the chance of pilling. Hairiness appressing method: The hairiness appressing method is to use mechanical and physical and chemical methods to make the hairiness tightly adhere to the surface of the fabric, so as to reduce feathers and reduce pilling. Specifically, the use of resin auxiliaries or chemical adhesives, through rolling, makes the hairiness lodged and fixed on the surface of the yarn. Through the above methods, the pilling can be improved to a certain extent. Reducing pilling is a systematic project, and it is recommended to take comprehensive measures in the production process of fiber production, spinning, weaving, dyeing and finishing. AVENO related Abrasion and pilling tester: Please click: Abrasion and pilling tester Contact Us Now! Sales Dept Tel: +86 15280858852 Email: sales@avenotester.com Skype: sales@avenotester.com Web: www.avenotester.com

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  • Daily maintenance of laboratory equipment

    Daily maintenance of laboratory equipment

    13 May, 2022

    In order to the accuracy of experimental data and the normal operation of experimental instruments, the daily maintenance of laboratory instruments is of great significance. The laboratory should formulate a reasonable maintenance plan according to the use conditions of different instruments. A reasonable maintenance plan can improve the accuracy and functionality of laboratory testing equipment, reduce the failure rate, improve the use rate and prolong the service life of equipment. Laboratory equipment managers should be familiar with the working principle of each instrument and understand the functionality and working mode of each component of each instrument and equipment, so as to formulate maintenance contents for the functional components of the instrument. Generally, the common maintenance contents are as follows: 1. Check the appearance and operation of functional components 2. Cleaning 3. Add lubricating oil, antirust oil, etc 4. Replace consumables / accessories General principles for selecting maintenance intervals and times Equipment maintenance is aimed at all the instruments in the laboratory: 1. Determine the frequency of the cycle according to the working principle of the instrument and the frequency of use; 2. Appropriately relax or shorten the maintenance cycle according to the harsh environment of the equipment; 3. Cooperate with the equipment period inspection. Generally speaking, equipment maintenance should be arranged before each equipment period inspection to ensure that the equipment is in the best condition during the period inspection. The routine maintenance of general equipment can be controlled at about twice a year. Under special circumstances or special equipment, flexible maintenance shall be carried out according to the specific actual situation: 1. The equipment with periodic replacement of consumables shall flexibly grasp the cycle according to the specific replacement cycle; 2. For the equipment working in the unavoidable harsh environment, the maintenance times shall be appropriately increased according to the actual situation without affecting the test; 3. It is recommended to arrange a maintenance before the equipment is checked during the period; 4. For equipment with high frequency of use, the number of maintenance shall be appropriately increased. Routine maintenance of common laboratory testing instruments 1. ICI Pilling and Snagging Tester Regularly wipe the surface of the cork liner with a trace amount of methanol, clean the roller box before and after the test, check whether the cork liner falls off and whether there are sharp objects on the surface, and regularly clean the exposed parts of the rotating shaft and bearings to prevent fiber residues and yarn residues. On the bearing, the rotation of the roller box is stuck and the rotation speed is abnormal. After confirming that there is no residue on the rotating shaft and the bearing, add lubricating oil. More about AVENO AG05 ICI Pilling and Snagg...

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  • Yarn twist knowledge

    Yarn twist knowledge

    17 Jan, 2022

    Yarn: it is the general term of yarn and thread. And has a strong continuous strip, including single yarns and strands. Single yarn: Processed by the short fibers, making the short fibers or wires along the axial direction and twisted. Ply yarn: it is made of two or more single yarns combined and twisted. Its strength and wear resistance are better than that of single yarn. At the same time, ply yarn can also be combined and twisted in a certain way to obtain compound twisted ply yarn. What is twisting? If one end of the strip is held, the other end is rotated, and the yarn can be formed, which is called twisted. For short fibers, the twisted is the necessary means of making the fiber strip as a yarn. It is generally necessary to condense the fibers into a fibrous strip before twisting, and the outer fibers of the fibers are extruded into the inner layer. Thereby, the strip is obtained in the longitudinal direction of the fibers. For long silk yarns and strands, twisted can form a tight structure that is not easily damaged by lateral force, and twisting can also form a variant wire and a fancy line. How many of the twisted and twisted direction not only affect the hand feel and appearance of the fabric, but also affect the intrinsic quality of the fabric. After the strip is twisted, the outer fibers produce a tilted helical roll back, the fiber torsional deformation, the gauze is tightly bored, and the structural form and mechanical physical properties of the fiber collective are changed. (As shown below) When there is an encirclement angle, the fiber has centripetal pressure on the yarn. The greater the encirclement angle, the greater the centripetal pressure. Due to the existence of centripetal pressure, the outer fiber is extruded to the inner layer, which increases the compactness of the yarn and the friction between the fibers, thus changing the structural form and physical and mechanical properties of the yarn, which is the essence of twisting yarn. Evaluation of yarn twist: Twist direction / twist / twist coefficient / twist shrinkage Twist direction: indicates the direction of twisting Twist direction refers to the inclined direction of the fiber in the single yarn or the single yarn in the strand after the yarn is twisted. It is divided into Z-twist and S-twist. After twisting, the twisting direction of yarn tends from the lower right corner to the upper left corner, and the inclined direction is consistent with the middle of "s", which is called s twisting or smooth twisting; The twist direction of yarn tends from the lower left corner to the upper right corner, and the tilt direction is consistent with the middle of "Z", which is called Z twist or backhand twist. Generally, Z-twist is used for single yarn and S-twist is used for ply yarn. The twist direction of the ply yarn is expressed according to the twist direction successively twisted. For example, the twist direction of single yarn with Z twist, initial twist with S twist and com...

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  • Test method for Pilling Resistance of fabrics

    Test method for Pilling Resistance of fabrics

    07 Jan, 2022

    Rationally and objectively evaluate the resistance of the fabric to promote the development and production of textiles to actively promote the role. There are many test methods for Pilling Resistance of fabrics, mainly simulated during daily life and actual wear and washing process, due to continuous friction, Thus, the phenomenon of the surface of the fabric appears, and thus the test method is designed. different target markets have different tests. Methods, such as US standards, European standards, China Standards, and customer standards, usually select appropriate test methods based on export, product types or buyers. The commonly used methods include ICI Pilling Box method, Martindale Pilling method, Random Tumble method, Elastic gasket method, Circular Locus Pilling method.It should be noted that the pilling test is not only limited to the above test. and now there are many customer requirements to rating directly through the hairpin of the fabric after washing, and the customer chooses to use the post-washing sample. Various pilling test methods to assess the resistance of the fabric against the promoting pilling performance. ICI Pilling Box method The test principle is three pieces of square samples that are sized by a square specimen of sizes from the weft to the weft, each of which are sewn into a tubular shape, and the front faces are separately set on the polyurethane moisture tube. Within a cork box, the test chamber is flipped by the number of 3600 revolutions per hour, and the sample is taken out in the rating box and the fabric is compared to the fabric, and the first level is the worst. The 5th is best, when the result is between the two adjacent two levels, I evaluate half. Common test standards include ISO 12945-1, GB / T 4802.3, IWS TM 152. This method mainly simulates the fabric itself with its own uninterrupted friction, and the fans of the fabric and other pharmaceutically fangs. This test method can be applied to all types of fabrics, but the main domestic market or export to the European market is using this method to test the pilling performance. AVENO related products: AG05 ICI Pilling and Snagging Tester Martindale Pilling method The test principle is to take three pairs of circular samples from the fabric, which are loaded in the upper and lower clamping devices. Under the slight pressure, the sample itself rubs each other, and rubbed by the Lissajous, after a certain number of revolutions, Samples are compared with the original or standard samples of the rating box, and the the worst level 1, level 5 is the best, and when the results are interposed between two adjacent two levels, it can be evaluated as half level. This method is applicable to all types of fabrics, but it is more applied to woven fabrics. It mainly simulates the pilling condition after frequent friction between fabrics. AVENO related products: AG04 Martindale Abrasion and Pilling Tester Random Tumble method The experimental principle is to take ...

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  • Calibration procedure Of ROSS Flexing Tester

    Calibration procedure Of ROSS Flexing Tester

    17 Nov, 2021

    1. Calibration items: angle (90°), speed (60~100±5 times/min) 2. Correction equipment: angle gauge, electronic stopwatch 3. Calibration period: one year 4. Calibration steps: a) Angle correction method of Ross Flex Resistance Testing Machine: i. First adjust the machine in a horizontal state. ii. Turn the motor belt by hand or press the STOP and START keys to adjust the horizontal position of the movable end fixture, place the angle gauge on the movable fixture, and the angle gauge indication should be 0°. Continue to rotate the belt or press the STOP and START keys to move the maximum swing angle of the end fixture is 90° to observe whether it matches the value indicated by the angle gauge. b) Speed correction method of SATRA TM60 Ross Flex Tester: i. Start the POWER button on the control panel, reset the "PV" column to zero, and set the number of times in the "SV" column (the number of times that the correction speed is exceeded). ii. Press the START button to start the machine, and at the same time let the electronic stopwatch start timing. iii. When the electronic stopwatch reaches 1 minute to stop timing, press the STOP machine to stop at the same time, and observe whether the 1 minute time is consistent with the standard speed. More about ROSS Flexing Tester please click: https://www.avenotester.com/ross-flexing-tester-af23_p88.html Contact Us Now! Sales Dept Tel: +86 15280858852 Email: sales@avenotester.com Skype: sales@avenotester.com Web: www.avenotester.com

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  • Device installation of Fabric Appearance Assessment System

    Device installation of Fabric Appearance Assessment System

    04 Oct, 2021

    1. Install two uprights Locate the Fabric Appearance Meassure Board base and two uprights, and lock the screws on both sides of the base. 2. Install the lamp holder Locate the top frame with the lamp holder, and lock the screws on both sides. 3. Installation panel Locate the panel against the top of the Fabric Appearance Meassure Board, align the holes on both sides, and insert the screws. 4. Install the panel support rod Find two corresponding holes on the two uprights of the instrument frame, and install the sample support frame. More about Fabric Appearance Assessment System please click: https://www.avenotester.com/fabric-appearance-assessment-system-ag47_p261.html Contact Us Now! Sales Dept Tel: +86 15280858852 Email: sales@avenotester.com Skype: sales@avenotester.com Web: www.avenotester.com

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The AVENO's May Day holiday notice
The AVENO's May Day holiday noticeMay 02, 2023

The AVENO's May Day holiday notice

Dear AVENO Customers, Hello! We would like to inform you about our upcoming May Day holiday. In honor of this statutory holiday, our offices will be closed from April 30, 2023 to May 3, 2023 to in observance of this national holiday. We will resume normal operations on May 4, 2023. During this period, we will be on duty, and we apologize if we cannot reply to you in time for any inconvenience this may cause. We kindly ask you to plan your orders and inquiries in advance accordingly to ensure there is no disruption to your business operations. Thank you for your understanding, and we wish you and your family a pleasant May Day holiday. Best regards, AVENO TECHNOLOGY CO., LIMITED Anything inquiry please contact us as below: AVENO technology co., ltd. Email: sales@avenotester.com AVENO Instruments, located in Quanzhou city of China, founded in Hongkong when 1998, main products including: Textile Testing Equipment, Footwear Testing Equipment, Children Products Testing Equiment.

AVENO, Manufacturer of Textile Testing Instruments
AVENO, Manufacturer of Textile Testing InstrumentsMar 23, 2023

AVENO, Manufacturer of Textile Testing Instruments

One of the main businesses of AVENO is the production of textile testing instruments, which mainly include Fabric & Textile Tester, Color Fastness Tester, Yarn & Fiber Tester, Abrasion and Pilling Tester, Flammerbility Tester, Snagging Tester and other textile testing instruments. AVENO has an independent research and development team, which continuously upgrades and updates the machines. It has the production capacity of standard machines and the ability to produce customized machines for specific machines. Several of our best-selling machines, such as Martindale Tester, ICI Pilling and Snagging Tester, Zipper Fatigue Tester, Bursting Strength Tester, Electronic Tearing Tester, AG15 Random Tumble Pilling Tester, AG18A Digital Air Permeability Tester, are well received by customers. Customers who came to visit the factory also expressed their satisfaction. All hot-selling products are in stock and can be delivered in about 3 days. All goods are delivered after passing the factory debugging. Customers come to visit and inspect our machines on the spot, and they are also highly recognized. AVENO Textile Testing Instruments Include: 1. Fabric & Textile Tester 2. Color Fastness Tester 3. Yarn & Fiber Tester 4. Abrasion and Pilling Tester 5. Flammerbility Tester, Snagging Tester 6. Snagging Tester Contact Us Now! Sales Dept Tel: +86 15280858852 Email: sales@avenotester.com Skype: sales@avenotester.com Web: www.avenotester.com

Maintenance of Single Column Tensile Strength Tester
Maintenance of Single Column Tensile Strength TesterFeb 06, 2023

Maintenance of Single Column Tensile Strength Tester

The Single Column Tensile Strength Tester is mainly used for stretching, tearing, peeling, constant elongation, constant load, Analysis and testing of mechanical properties such as elastic recovery, suture slippage, modulus, and single yarn strength. 1) The Universal Strength Tester adopts touch screen control, Chinese and English menu, easy to operate. 2) The built-in thermal printer is convenient for quick printing of test results on site. 3) The professional computer sharing software can realize two-way operation with the computer, and can perform report statistics, visual analysis of graphs, etc.; this software is open software, and can edit the required test program according to its own needs; it can also support remote instrument upgrades and maintain. 4) The column is made of aluminum alloy profile, and the surface is treated with high-temperature curing spray, which is scratch-resistant and not easy to fade. Maintenance of Single Column Tensile Strength Tester 1) Every time you finish the experiment, you have to clean it up. Keep the equipment clean. 2) After the fixture is used, it should be preserved with antirust oil. 3) The replacement of sensor or plug-in connection line must be carried out after the power supply is turned off. If the sensor access terminal is suspended, it is easy to damage the amplifier and ad conversion circuit due to static electricity. 4) The Tensile Test Equipment needs to calibrate the force sensor regularly to ensure the accuracy of the measurement value of the instrument. 5) Lubricate the moving parts on a regular basis. 6) In case of failure of the instrument, the professional staff shall be requested to repair. The spare parts must be replaced by the original model. 7) Please operate the instrument in accordance with the precautions and requirements of this instruction. AVENO Machine Recommend: Universal Tensile Strength Tester (Single Column) AG02 Contact Us Now! Sales Dept Tel: +86 15280858852 Email: sales@avenotester.com Skype: sales@avenotester.com Web: www.avenotester.com

Happy Chinese New Year
Happy Chinese New YearJan 24, 2023

Happy Chinese New Year

Happy Chinese New Year my friends. AVENO wish you happy Spring Festival. Anything inquiry please contact us as below: Sales Dept Tel: +86 15280858852 Email: sales@avenotester.com Skype: sales@avenotester.com Web: www.avenotester.com

Happy New Year
Happy New YearDec 31, 2022

Happy New Year

Time always passes by when we don't expect it, and the new year has come to us. New year, new wish, new hope, new life, I wish you in the new year, all your wishes can come true, all your dreams can come true, all your expectations can come true, all your sacrifices can be fulfilled. AVENO is a company that produces and sells laboratory testing instruments. Thank you for your support in the past year. We have cooperated very happily in the past year. Thank you for your care. In 2023, we will provide you with better service and start our new year Cooperation. Happy New Year to you and your family. Anything inquiry please contact us as below: AVENO technology co., ltd. Email: sales@avenotester.com AVENO Instruments, located in Quanzhou city of China, founded in Hongkong when 1998, more than 24 years of R&D and production experience of laboratory physical testing instruments, which have been affirmed by third-party testing institutions around the world such as SGS, UL, BV, Intertek etc. Our main products including: 1.Textile Testing Equipment(including Fabric tester. Yarn tester Fiber tester.etc.) 2.Footwear Testing Equipment(including Shoe tester.Leather tester.Rubber tester.etc.) 3.Children Products Testing Equiment(including Toy tester.electronic toy tester.etc.)

Why does the fabric pill
Why does the fabric pillNov 16, 2022

Why does the fabric pill

With the development of the times and the continuous improvement of people's living standards, the requirements for clothing have also been continuously improved. It is not limited to warmth, durability, and new requirements have been put forward for comfort, aesthetics, and functionality. The fabric is prone to fluffing and pilling during wearing. This phenomenon not only deteriorates the appearance and feel of the fabric, but also wears the fabric and reduces the performance of the fabric. Fabric pilling process Factors Affecting Pilling Factors affecting fabric pilling are mainly the effects of fiber properties, yarn, fabric structure, dyeing and finishing process, etc. 1. Fiber properties Fiber strength Fibers with high strength, large elongation, high resistance to repeated bending, and strong wear resistance are not easy to be broken or shed when rubbed, but will further entangle with the surrounding hair clumps and hair balls to form larger balls. However, the fiber strength is low, and the formed hair balls are easy to fall off from the surface of the fabric after friction. Therefore, the fiber strength is high and easy to pill. Fiber length Short fibers are easier to pill than long fibers, and long fibers are less prone to pilling than short fibers. The frictional resistance of long fibers in the yarn is greater than that of short fibers, and it is not easy to be drawn out from the yarn. In the same number of fiber cross-sections, the end of the long fiber exposed to the surface of the yarn is less than that of the short fiber, and the chance of being rubbed by external force is small. Polyester filaments have high strength and are not easy to wear and break when subjected to mechanical external force, and polyester filament fabrics are not easy to pilling. Fiber fineness For the same raw materials, thin fibers are easier to pill than thick fibers. The thicker the fibers, the greater the bending stiffness. Friction between fibers The friction between the fibers is large, the fibers are not easy to slide, and it is not easy to pilling. Fiber blends are prone to pilling Especially the blended fabrics of chemical fibers and wool, cotton, and regenerated cellulose fibers are prone to pilling, because the chemical fiber fibers are relatively strong ball fibers and are not easy to fall off. Fiber cross-sectional shape The fiber with special-shaped cross-section has high bending rigidity, is not easy to bend and entangle, and has a low probability of relative contact and friction, is not easy to pull out and entangle, and is not easy to produce pilling. Fiber crimp The more crimped the fiber is, the less likely the fiber is to stretch when twisting, and the fiber is easy to loosen and slip during the friction process, forming plush on the surface of the yarn. Therefore, the better the curl of the fiber, the easier it is to pilling. 2. Yarn The main factors that affect the pilling of fabrics are yarn hairiness and wear resistance, which involve ...

 
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